2017 Digital Learning Applications

My fellow digital learning designers have been egging me to post my initial thoughts about different digital learning applications, which we tend to come to an agreement that pedagogy now should make use of these technologies in teaching and learning.  Digital technologies and methods are mostly use as part of the professor’s tools for teaching.

Most digital learning designers are involve in converting massive old written curriculum into online courses. They can also be creating learning apps, digital exhibits, or the latest automation mostly associated with robotic toys. Below are some of the digital learning apps such as:

LMSs (Learning Management Systems); MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses); BYOD (bring your own device); BYOT (bring your own technology); BYOC (bring your own connectivity); makerspaces; fablab; fabshop; innolab; robotics; digital portfolios; online discussion forums; blogging platforms; wikis, microblogging; back channels; audio recording and music making; image and video editing; creation of infographics, slideshows, and presentations; digital storytelling; social media; collaboration tools; mobile apps; game-based learning and environments; coding and computer programming; augmented and virtual realities; technologies for creating physical or virtual 3D models; gesture-based computing; learning analytics and statistical analysis software; online authoring tools; wearable technology; affective computing; rubric generators; quizzes; online response systems such as polls and surveys; video conferencing; cloud computing; and student feedback tools such as Safe Assign, Turnitin, GradeMark, and PeerMark.

Students, in one way or another, needs to navigate on these myriads of technologies available, not only to maximize but to speed up learning. Digital technologies also allows to create personalize learning experience that caters to students as a place of engagement and discovery.

My final words, the world is changing with these digital learning applications, it’s just a matter of time until the web-based education technology model replaces the traditional classroom. If one can’t keep up, being left behind is a possibility. Specifically, chances of getting hired are much lower if the applicant can’t prove that they have embrace new ways of learning.

So that you may know….

During the 1990s, I am more familiar with GeoCities writers and beta testers than with the neighborhoods in my town. Geocities is one of the most popular and oldest websites in the net that offers sense of being in the state of “wired’ within community, it was one of my first ventures into being the “cybernauts” (not related to the old British film in the 60s) as opposed to web surfers today in this period, to freely and openly become engaged with the internet, GeoCities will always be an important part of web history.

They have taken care to preserve some of my write up that still matters today. Thank you.

picture from oocities.com (formerly Geocites)

How do I connect in during that period ?  The same thing as BBs systems (a.k.a. Bulletin Board) in the 80s, I use 14.4 or 28.8 kbps (if we’re lucky) modem and a prepaid internet card coupled with an installation CD, that look like this.

courtesy of edphotography

In 2007, mobile tech improvements have made use of the Nokia Communicator that look like this.

courtesy of edphotography

Now you know.

 

 

 

Practical laboratory experience is essential for linking together theory and practice. So that the professor has to exert enormous effort to design experiment/s that can inspire students to do critical thinking and become problem solvers.

Take this experience as example, while searching for mechatronics experiments, the professor experienced several difficulties across different mechatronic systems; issues crop up like; install, use, learn, understand, maintain, expensive, host-platform dependent and lack of write-ups. As a result, the professor faces a number of headaches, worst of which is wasting invaluable time trying to teach students how to use these mechatronics system.

All these problems are address with the introduction of the Arduino development platform (caveat: I’m writing about it, but not endorsing it). An open source (meaning free on certain conditions) platform, the student use their own computer, download the reference manual and software-development tools from the Arduino website, install it with little to no hassle at all on any host platform (e.g., Mac OSX, Windows, Linux). After a few minutes of installation, the student can immediately connect to the embedded development board via USB, compile and download an example program and get instant output via blinking LED from the arduino board. The true benefit of this design is that an embedded systems beginner (the student) can focus their attention on learning how to build the hardware and write the software to interface with peripheral devices they wish to create or prototype.

With this setup, schools no longer need to spend money on a dedicated yet expensive embedded mechatronics lab furthermore, students can practice on their own phase at home.

In 2013, the professor decided to try the Arduino development environment in replacement of “older” mechatronics experiments.

Courtesy of the edphotography.

Unfortunately, at the start of the semester, there were no suitable lecture notes for presenting general knowledge covering the course program using Arduino platform. As a result, the professor collected and created some notes which eventually transformed into this work. He have relied on his industry experience with before mechatronics its instrumentation and control, to provide students with fundamental, yet general knowledge of creating embedded hardware and software using Arduino.

Hopefully, this will result in students learning the core concepts of mechatronics that they can reapply on future projects where they are likely to work on different processors.

The professor’s experiment/workshop will inspire students to explore this fast-growing technology where mechanical, electronics and software collide. That Mechatronics !

Not only that, the experience at the end of the experiment/workshop, students are required to work hard and make their own project that may involve any of the following:

  • Consumer devices in all fields (health, fitness, travel…)
  • Gadgets / Toys of the new generation …. maybe drones ?
  • Consumer devices that have ecosystems
  • Assistive device for PWDs
  • Media and Entertainment i.e. VRs anyone ?
  • Robotics, Bionics, Cybernetics
  • Mobile Appliances
  • Green technology devices
  • Neuro tech of any kind …….  that mind control devices
  • Crazy stuff as it might work !

 

“Who Owns Mechatronics?”, Feature Article, June 2008

Mechanical, electrical, control, and software engineers all play a vital role in building Mechatronics systems. But who will lead?

by Alan S. Brown,
Associate Editor

© 2008 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Suddenly, mechatronics is everywhere. This year, North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania will all host major conferences devoted to the technology. Even more meetings will hold sessions on it. Engineers have mechatronics journals and can read mechatronics papers in journals that cover other fields. Many engineering schools include mechatronics courses, and three even offer bachelor’s degrees in the field.

This interest is not just academic. There is plenty of pull from industry. Consumer-products giant Procter & Gamble Co., for example, trains all new engineering hires in mechatronics. Companies as diverse as Swedish bearing manufacturer SKF Group and California-cool design firm IDEO embrace its precepts.

The term was coined nearly 40 years ago, in 1969, when engineer Tetsuro Mori combined the words “mechanical” and “electronic” to describe the electronic control systems that Yaskawa Electric Corp. was building for mechanical factory equipment.

Yet when engineers talk mechatronics today, that’s not all they’re talking about. The electromechanical control systems once designed for the factory floor have become ubiquitous. Mechatronics are everywhere around us, from computer hard drives and robotic assembly systems to washing machines, coffee makers, and medical devices. Electronics that control mechanical systems account for much of the value of the average automobile, managing everything from stability control and antilock brakes to climate control and memory-adjust seats.

Talk to anyone involved in mechatronics long enough and they will eventually say something like, “You can hardly build a mechanical system any more that doesn’t have electronics in it.”

So who will play the lead role in developing those mechatronics systems? Will it be the mechanical engineers, who design the moving parts? Will it be electrical engineers, whose chips and sensors are the heart of control? Will companies rely on software engineers, who give mechatronic devices their character? Or will it be engineers of some as-yet-undefined description? Who will own mechatronics?

 

The Bottom Line

“Mechatronics” means many things to many people, but when pressed, many reference a drawing shown by Kevin Craig, perhaps the nation’s foremost evangelist of mechatronic design. It consists of four overlapping circles: mechanical systems, electronic systems, control systems, and computers. Their overlaps form digital control systems, control electronics, electromechanics, and mechanical CAD. In the middle, their junction forms mechatronics.

“Mechatronics represents more than mechanical and electronics,” according to Craig, a professor of mechanical engineering who left Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute to start a mechatronics program at Marquette University. “Mechatronics is really all about design of any physical system, where you integrate controls, electronics, and computers from the very start of the design process.”

The emphasis on early design integration and parallel development is not coincidental. Last year, National Instruments Corp., a company whose software helps engineers develop mechatronic control systems, surveyed 30 machine builders around the world. “Of the 30, 29 said the complexity of their machines is going up drastically while time to market is going down,” said NI’s product manager, Todd Dobberstein.

Many in the field have adapted Kevin Craig’s definition of mechatronics: where mechanical, electronic, control, and software engineering all meet.

The same is true on the consumer side. “Everybody wants it faster, cheaper, smaller, and smarter, with more capacity and higher performance,” Craig said.

A study of 170 companies released by Boston-based technology think tank Aberdeen Group in February 2008 backs up both Craig and Dobberstein.

According to an Aberdeen analyst, Michelle Boucher, the best performers among the surveyed companies have changed the way they worked. Boucher’s top performers have a formal review process. More importantly, though, they do not schedule meetings based on time—every week, twice monthly—but on key events in the project timeline. Instead of wasting time in a meeting when nothing is happening, key players gather when it’s time to fit the pieces together.

They also believe in documentation. An engineer may answer a problem of vibration by adding a stiffener. In an integrated mechatronic process, however, that small mechanical change may increase the mass of the part; it also may affect how fast the control system ramps up motor speed and how long the part holds in place before returning. Formal documentation not only keeps everyone in the loop, but also lets them work on problems concurrently.

Many top mechatronic performers also use software that routes, tracks, and shares work. Most common are workflow tools, which automatically route work packages, warn about deadlines, and notify the right people of changes. Many companies make use of product data management tools to manage multidisciplinary bills of materials.

Design and project collaboration software are also popular. These applications help engineers visualize how systems work and are easy to mark up with questions and comments. “If you’re an electrical engineer, you don’t necessarily have easy access to CAD data, so this helps you see how the device is supposed to work,” Boucher said.

 

Adjectives Aside

But the question remains: Which engineers lead?

According to Peter Schmidt, a senior research engineer at Rockwell Automation’s Advanced Technology Group who teaches part-time with Craig at Marquette, “We’re all engineers and we’re doing engineering, period. I tell them not to worry about the adjective—mechanical, electrical, or whatever—in front of it.”

Schmidt started out as an electrical engineer. No surprise there. Rockwell Automation has long hired electrical and control engineers to design its machine control and factory automation systems. Many of the company’s engineers say they have been doing systems integration design and modeling-in short, mechatronics—for 20 years.

What separates mechatronics from systems integration design and modeling is not what engineers do, but how they do it, Schmidt said. “In the past, it was unheard of for a control company like Rockwell to have anything to do with the design of a machine,” he said. “It was proprietary. For companies like Procter & Gamble and Kimberly-Clark, those designs were a competitive advantage. They didn’t want us to know about what they were doing.

“Now, they’re trying to be more efficient, more cost-conscious. So instead of being called in after the fact, we go in and help them design it properly from the start.”

Then, tellingly, Schmidt added, “Because you’re in on the design phase, you have to work with different engineers— mechanical, electrical, computer programmers—and different companies.” It’s that multidisciplinary approach from concept through delivery that separates mechatronics from old-style control engineering at Rockwell.

Technology Driven Products Inc. of Loveland, Colo., is a very different company from Rockwell, but it has also embraced mechatronics. President Terry Precht calls it a virtual factory, combining design, manufacturing (usually 10,000 to 20,000 units per year), and depot repair services. The company’s products have ranged from Doppler radar golf swing analyzers and veterinary ophthalmoscopes to pump controllers and automated film drive systems. “Lately, we only design things we get to build, and prefer to build things that we design,” Precht said.

“Concurrent design is one of our advantages,” he explained. “Our manufacturing department is less than 50 feet away from engineering. The engineers do concept-level design, and then we get our manufacturing people involved in design review. They see if we can accomplish it functionally, and how we can embody some of those concepts.”

While some mechatronics teams like to run simulations, Precht prefers to prototype. “We like to build as fast as we can,” he said, although his firm also uses 3-D CAD and tools for electrical design. “You can answer certain questions from an actual model that you can’t get answered in a soft model,” he said.

For example, engineers make assumptions about efficiency or how fast they can remove heat using certain construction techniques. Prototyping determines whether they hit their mark. While electrical engineers design the circuitry, mechanical engineers determine the position of circuit board components to maximize heat exchange through the enclosure.

 

Project Leadership

“Our mechanical and electrical engineers are always working very closely together on these things,” Precht said. So who leads the project?

“It depends on the design,” Precht answered. Mechanical engineers handle designs that rely on mechanics, while electrical engineers handle projects with few moving parts. When Precht builds systems with complex moving parts, mechanical engineers write the control software since they understand how the devices should operate.

Precht tends to assign the most complicated projects to mechanical engineers. “If there are a lot of parts on the bill of materials, it requires a specialized skill set to keep organized and understand everything going on with mechanical parts and also processors and associated chips,” he said. The more complex the project, the more important it is to see the big picture.

Precht hires engineers trained in mechatronics at Colorado State University in nearby Fort Collins. “We have three graduates that went through Doctor Dave’s mechatronics course, and it was just obvious from the start how well they can work across a broad spectrum of projects compared with engineers who were classically trained,” Precht said. “They’re more readily adaptable and understand the basics of electronics, filters, and processors. Then they have that mechanical piece, the fundamentals that let them manage the packaging and heat in a device.”

“Doctor Dave” is David Alciatore, a professor of mechanical engineering who literally wrote the book on mechatronics, Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems, with co-author and professor emeritus Michael Histand. The first edition came out in 1999, and the book is now in its fourth edition.

Alciatore makes a strong case for mechanical engineers leading the way. “A good hands-on mechanical engineer trained in electronics makes a much better mechatronics engineer than an electrical engineer or computer engineer trained in mechanics later,” he said. When it comes to mechatronics projects, mechanical engineers are usually better able to troubleshoot software problems than electrical engineers can analyze how stiffness, friction, or clearance changes a machine.

Craig also believes that mechanical engineers should be mechatronics leaders. “We’re the broadest discipline and we build the physical systems,” he said. “What’s changed is that we incorporate electronic systems and controls into everything we do—not as an afterthought or an add-on—but as part of the design. You can’t have a mechanical engineer do his or her thing, then pass it on to an electrical or manufacturing engineer when it’s done.”

Because electronics has become such an integral part of mechanical design, mechanical engineers have had to learn to talk about sensors, actuators, processors, and code in the same breath as structural strength and materials. “We need to know how to use the devices electrical engineers create in our systems,” Craig said.

“Electrical and other engineers don’t have that experience, and they don’t crave that experience,” he said. They also don’t have time for it. According to Craig, electrical engineering programs are tightly focused and often specialized. “In some instances, electromagnetics and control engineering are not even required courses in their curriculum, and yet for us they are foundational,” he said. Alciatore, Precht, and Craig are all mechanical engineers, so it’s not surprising they think this way. At Rockwell Automation and other control system companies, electronics engineers have always led, Schmidt said.

“I like to think that an electrical engineer could do it all if he or she had to,” he said. He noted that electrical engineers go deeper into control theory than mechanical engineers do, and that expertise is needed when dealing with complex systems. For that reason, electrical engineers are likely to continue to lead the way at Rockwell. Then he added, “When dealing with customers on system design, it’s typically the customer’s mechanical engineers that we’re working with.”

At the Transportation Technology Center in Pueblo, Colo., which does testing for the American Association of Railroads, the leadership roles are fluid. “The individuals that end up filling the project manager role are usually those most comfortable with taking the leadership role and making presentations. This is often more a function of personality type than type of degree,” said executive director of engineering services Robert Florom.

 

Back to School

Right now, the question of who owns mechatronics—who will lead the development of next-generation electromechanical systems—often depends on where engineers work. Companies that make mechanical systems tend to let mechanical engineers lead; those that make electronics assign the lead to software and electrical engineers.

In the future, though, the issue may be decided by how colleges train the next generation of mechanical engineers. Right now, most schools teach controls, basic electronics, and programming as part of the mechanical engineering curriculum.

Alciatore takes that approach. “Our philosophy here is that all mechanical engineers should be trained so they can easily evolve into mechatronic engineers,” he said. In addition to the course work, Colorado State’s program also focuses on teaching students to work on teams, an essential for the multifunctional world of industrial design.

This comes together in a year-long senior capstone design course where teams design, build, and sometimes compete with sophisticated systems that have ranged from racing cars to search-and-rescue robots. Occasionally, a project draws an electrical engineer. “They don’t have as many projects, and they don’t usually build stuff,” Alciatore said. “They come over here to get experience on fun projects.”

Alciatore’s goal is to integrate more mechatronics into the traditional mechanical engineering curriculum.

At Marquette, Craig wants to revamp the curriculum entirely. “Mechatronics shouldn’t be a specialty in mechanical engineering, but all mechanical engineers should become mechatronic engineers, multidisciplinary engineers,” he said.

According to Craig, classical mechanical engineering has become a commodity skill. “We keep educating engineers that do what the rest of the world can do,” he said. “They can solve the problems, run the computer programs, do the nuts-and-bolts type stuff that our engineers can do. So what would you do if you were a corporation? Go to India or China and hire five engineers for the cost of one here.

“Our engineers need to graduate and contribute to solutions,” Craig said. “They need to be immediate, integrative, innovative, conceptual, and multidisciplinary. This is how I hear companies describe the modern engineer.” Mechatronics, he said, enables students to contribute from day one.

Craig’s goal at Marquette is to integrate courses so that electrical, control, and mechanical engineers learn how different disciplines use the same core knowledge to achieve different results. This is an uphill battle. When different disciplines teach a common control course, the content varies. “If an electrical engineer teaches, it’s very mathematical. If a mechanical engineer teaches, it’s very physical,” he said. Craig’s goal is to provide fundamental knowledge and modules that focus on discipline-specific applications. “We can’t just keep adding courses to the curriculum,” Craig said. “That just confuses the students. We have to show how we can integrate electronics and controls into modern mechanical systems. For mechanical engineers, this may not require in-depth knowledge of all these things, but it should at least give them the ability to speak to experts.”

Another approach is to offer a degree in mechatronics. So far, only three schools do that: California State University, Chico; North Carolina State University (a joint program at Raleigh and Asheville), and Colorado State University at Pueblo.

Pueblo is a small school, with 4,000 students and only 120 engineering majors. Until 2005, it offered only industrial engineering. The department chair, Jane Fraser, thinks that industrial engineering is an ideal platform for mechatronics because the focus is on bottom-line results rather than on gears or circuits. “It’s the closest you can get to a business degree and still be an engineer,” Fraser said.

Yet, like Craig, Fraser tells students that they’re engineers first, and mechanical, electrical, or other types of engineers second. “We’re trying to turn out students for more generalized engineering,” she said. The first two years of study are actually very generic, and students can easily transfer into industrial, mechanical, or civil engineering programs at any other state university.

The mechatronics program can be demanding, said Neb Jacsik, a Pueblo professor who started out as an electrical engineer and received his Ph.D. in industrial and systems engineering. “It’s extremely hard for many of the unwary students who had a little robot in school and thought they would just play with it some more and get a degree for that. Mechatronics does take a certain mindset, and it’s not just about playing with resistors or gears.”

Fraser originally opposed introducing mechatronics at Pueblo. “Originally, it sounded too gadget-oriented to me,” she said. She now believes mechatronics is where engineering is moving.

Manufacturing companies in her community are telling her the same thing. They want students trained to integrate electronics, controls, computers, and moving parts. For them, this is not just where engineering is going. It is where engineering has arrived.

Maybe one day mechatronics engineers will replace mechanical engineers. Or maybe all mechanical engineers will be mechatronics engineers.

In the meantime, though, it is a golden age for mechanical engineers who know how to add a sensor and program a processor to control moving parts.

http://www.memagazine.org/june08/features/whoowns/whoowns.html

© 2008 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Collected some softwares used by different engineers……..

I will slooowly write about these softwares someday,  think you should help ?  Hit me an email through the comment box.

UNIGRAPHICS, IDEAS, CATIA, PRO-E, AUTO CAD, SOLID WORKS, SOLID EDGE, INVENTOR used for design engineering.

CAE Projects – Stress analysis, dynamic analysis etc. of aero, auto or mechanical systems can be done through these projects. New design, Improving performance, optimization can be accomplished. FEM based software like ANSYS, NASTRAN, RADIOSS, HYPERMESH, FLUENT, LSDYNAetc. can be used.

CFD Projects – Flow analysis, Thermal analysis, Aerodynamics improvement are the typical projects. This uses software like FLUENT, STAR-CCM+ are used for CFD analysis.

NX is a combination software with multi use.

MATLAB is also an important software for mechanical. It help in solving the difficult mathematical equations and plotting of any curve.

And more softwares …

AVEVA PDMS 12.1.SP2

AMETank v10.4 32/64

Ansys Products  v17.1

Aspen Technology aspenONE v9.1

Aspen Technology Hysys v9.1

Autodesk Autocad Civil 3D v2018

Autodesk Autocad P&ID v2018

Autodesk Autocad Plant 3D v2018

Autodesk Autocad v2018

Autodesk Navisworks Manager v2018

Autodesk Navisworks Simulate v2018

AutoPipe

AVEVA Bocad 2.3.0

AVEVA Electrical 12.1.SP4

AVEVA Everything3D™ 2.1.0.4

AVEVA Instrumentation 12.1.SP4

AVEVA P&ID 12.1.SP2

Bentley GeoStructural Analysis v17.00.28.00

Bentley Staad Pro V8i (SELECT Series 6) 20.07.11.70

BR&E Promax V3.2.13116.0

Calsep PVTsim v20

Caxperts 3D SymbolDesigner v07.00.1603.2302 For Smart 3D

Caxperts PDS AdminTool v04.03.00.10

Caxperts Spec Manager v02.05.00.13

Caxperts SpecXpert v01.09.1603.2902

CMG v2016.101

Dnv Phast & Safeti v7.1

Dnv Phast & Safeti-Nl v6.53.1

Drillworks v5000.8.0.0

DYADEM PHA Pro v8.3.2.0

ESI Pipeline Studio v4.0.1.0

E-Ware ETank2000 v2010 1.9.14(26 Oct 2010)

Haliburtone Landmark EDM & EDT v5000.1.13.0.2

IHS Energy Perform v7.53

IHS Energy Que$tor Q1 2015

IHS Que$tor v2016Q3

Intergraph CADWorx E&I V2016 HF3

Intergraph Cadworx OrthoGen v10.01.00.5438

Intergraph CadWorx Plant 2017 R1 (17.01.00.)

Intergraph Caesar II 2017 HF2 (09.00.00.5902)

Intergraph PDS 2011 SP1 (12.0.01)

Intergraph PV Elite 2017 SP1 (19.00.01.0003)

Intergraph SmartPlant Electrical 2016 HF3

Intergraph SmartPlant Engineering Manager v2014 R1 HF3 (07.01.00.0160)

Intergraph SmartPlant Foundation 2016 HF9 (06.00.00.0109)

Intergraph SmartPlant Instrumentation SPI 2016 SP1 (11.00.01.0296)

Intergraph SmartPlant Isometrics 2014 R1 SP1 HF3

Intergraph SmartPlant Markup Plus v2016 HF3

Intergraph SmartPlant P&ID v2014 R1 HF12 (07.01.00.0340)

Intergraph SmartPlant Review 2017 HotFix 2 (12.00.00.0523)

Intergraph SmartPlant Spoolgen 2014R1 HF2

Intergraph SP3D 2016 HF08 (11.00.84.0107)

Intergraph Tank 2015

IPM v10.114

KAPPA Ecrin v4.30

KAPPA Emeraude v2.60

KAPPA Server v5.10

KAPPA Server v5.10

KAPPA Workstation v5.10

KBC Infochem Multiflash v6.0

KBC PETROSIM Suite 4.1

Landmark EDM & EDT v5000.14.1

OLGA v2016.1.1

Paradigm Sysdrill v10.5

Paradigm v15.5

Paulin Reserach Group(PRG) v2015

Petrel v2015.5 All Plugins

Petro-SIM v5.1

Roxar RMS v10.0

Schlumberger Eclipse v2016.1

Schlumberger Merak Suite 2013.1

Schlumberger OFM v2016.1

Schlumberger Petrel v2016.1

Schlumberger PIPESIM v2016.1

Schlumberger Techlog v2016

Shell FRED v4.0

SMT v8.8

Solid Plant 3D 2016 R1 (1.0.5)

Solid Plant P&ID 2016 (1.0.1)

Solid Works 2016 SP3

SPT Group Drillbench v6.2

Tekla Structural Designer 2015 v15.0.0.40

Zeataline PipeData Pro.12.0.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As a Mechanical Engineer Designer, it is important to know the different mechanical properties of material.

The first category of material is metal and second is non-metals. Metals are further classified into two types : Ferrous metals and Non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals mainly consist iron with comparatively small addition of other materials. It includes iron and its alloy such as cast iron, steel, high speed steel, etc. Ferrous metals are widely used in mechanical industries mainly for its availability. Non-ferrous metals contain little or no iron. It includes aluminum, magnesium, copper, zinc etc.

Courtesy of edphotography

Most Mechanical properties are associated with metals. These are……

#1. Strength:

The ability of material to withstand load without failure is known as strength. If a material can bear more load, it means it has more strength. Strength of any material mainly depends on type of loading and deformation before fracture. According to loading types, strength can be classified into three types.

  • a. Tensile strength:
  • b. Compressive strength:
  • c. Shear strength:

According to the deformation before fracture, strength can be classified into three types.

  • a. Elastic strength:
  • b. Yield strength:
  • c. Ultimate strength:

#2. Homogeneity:

If a material has same properties throughout its geometry, known as homogeneous material and the property is known as homogeneity. It is an ideal situation but practically no material is homogeneous.

#3. Isotropy:

A material which has same elastic properties along its all loading direction known as isotropic material.

#4. Anisotropy:

A material which exhibits different elastic properties in different loading direction known as an-isotropic material.

#5. Elasticity:

If a material regain its original dimension after removal of load, it is known as elastic material and the property by virtue of which it regains its original shape is known as elasticity.

Every material possess some elasticity. It is measure as the ratio of stress to strain under elastic limit.

#6. Plasticity:

The ability of material to undergo some degree of permanent deformation without failure after removal of load is known as plasticity. This property is used for shaping material by metal working. It is mainly depends on temperature and elastic strength of material.

#7. Ductility:

Ductility is a property by virtue of which metal can be drawn into wires. It can also define as a property which permits permanent deformation before fracture under tensile loading. The amount of permanent deformation (measure in percentage elongation) decides either the material is ductile or not.

Percentage elongation = (Final Gauge Length – Original Gauge Length )*100/ Original Gauge Length

If the percentage elongation is greater than 5% in a gauge length 50 mm, the material is ductile and if it less than 5% it is not.

#8. Brittleness:

Brittleness is a property by virtue of which, a material will fail under loading without significant change in dimension. Glass and cast iron are well known brittle materials.

#9. Stiffness:

The ability of material to resist elastic deformation or deflection during loading, known as stiffness.  A material which offers small change in dimension during loading is more stiffer. For example steel is stiffer than aluminum.

#10. Hardness:

The property of a material to resist penetration is known as hardness. It is an ability to resist scratching, abrasion or cutting.

It is also define as an ability to resist fracture under point loading.

#11. Toughness:

Toughness is defined as an ability to withstand with plastic or elastic deformation without failure. It is defined as the amount of energy absorbed before actual fracture.

#12. Malleability:

A property by virtue of which a metal can flatten into thin sheets, known  as malleability. It is also define as a property which permits plastic deformation under compression loading.

#13. Machinability:

A property by virtue of which a material can be cut easily.

#14. Damping:

The ability of metal to dissipate the energy of vibration or cyclic stress is called damping. Cast iron has good damping property, that’s why most of machines body made by cast iron.

#15. Creep:

The slow and progressive change in dimension of a material under influence of its safe working stress for long time is known as creep. Creep is mainly depend on time and temperature. The maximum amount of stress under which a material withstand during infinite time is known as creep strength.

#16. Resilience:

The amount of energy absorb under elastic limit during loading is called resilience. The maximum amount of the energy absorb under elastic limit is called proof resilience.

#17. Fatigue Strength:

The failure of a work piece under cyclic load or repeated load below its ultimate limit is known as fatigue. The maximum amount of cyclic load which a work piece can bear for infinite number of cycle is called fatigue strength. Fatigue strength is also depend on work piece shape, geometry, surface finish etc.

#18. Embrittlement:

The loss of ductility of a metal caused by physical or chemical changes, which make it brittle, is called embrittlement.

Before, if a product fails, it will be made stronger by adding more material or redesign it bigger for better.  Whether the rest of the design was just good enough or make it x times stronger than the first one. Over time, products that never failed were targets for cost reduction as business decision.  It was not a technical decisions anymore, but business cost reduction as it is likely. The design nowadays  would offer the “weaker”  product, the more it was “closely” engineered to lower the cost. It is designed closer to the expected loads. Hence, the need to read the fine print of the manual before using any product.

capiche !